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The Relationship Between Employee’s Level Of Motivation And Their Productivity At Work Place: A Case

ABSTRACT

Retention of skilled and talented staffs is necessary for attaining competitive position in the current competitive banking sector. So, most of the banks adopts motivation programs for enhancing employee productivity and employee retention. So, the study critically evaluates the relationship between employee motivation and productivity by taking the case of HSBC, UK.


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HSBC is one among the world’s popular banking organizations which gives high importance to employee motivation for enhancing the performance of the employees. However, rude attitude of the managers, unequal reward systems, etc created employee job dissatisfaction and it negatively influenced employee productivity. So, the researcher analyzed the effectiveness of employee motivation programs of HSBC for enhancing employee productivity.

The researcher has carried out exploratory research using interpretivism philosophy and inductive approach for analyzing the relation between the variables. The researcher has collected secondary data from various printed and online sources. By conducting individual in-depth interview with manager and self- administered survey with employees of HSBC, the researcher was able to gather qualitative and quantitative data for the study. The researcher used thematic approach and descriptive analysis method for analyzing the qualitative and quantitative data respectively. The study findings revealed that, HSBC has given high priority for its employees and used effective employee motivation programs for enhancing the productivity of the employees. However, rude attitude of the managers, unequal reward system, lack of considerations of employees’ requirements, etc created employee job dissatisfaction and thus motivational programs of HSBC created only average effect on employee performance. Improvement in managers’’ attitude towards the staffs, equilibrium in reward system, consideration to employee requirements, etc were suggested by the researcher for enhancing employee productivity.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

Today’s business sector faces high competition and demands full potential of its employees (Sale, 2015). Among the factors that heighten the productivity of employees, motivation is of prime significance (Azulay, 2012). The unmotivated workforce extracts the positivism and enthusiasm in the work environment which are the characteristics of potential growth of a firm (Morris, 2012). Hence in this study the researcher will review the dependency of motivation levels in employees with their productivity taking the case of HSBC, UK. The research variables, background, rationale, aim and limitations have been outlined by the researcher in this section.

1.2 Research Background

The productivity of the workforce in the growth of an organization is a key determiner of the success of organization in the long run (Nelson, 2012). The ratio of the output of an employee to the input of the firm can be termed as employee productivity (Sale, 2015). Keeping up this ratio low requires different strategies to be implemented. Intrinsic nature of financial business sector is dynamism and it has been proven that keeping the employees in a motivated platform is of primary concern in attaining the hectic goals of financial organization (Buckley, 2016). Employee motivation is effective stimulation which enhances their inner drive to make their work priorities complementary with that of organisations (Sale, 2015). It has been proven by Nelson (2012) that unless an employee is motivated to exploit the inherent potentials, the anticipated performance level is lowered to great extent. Firms that negate the importance of employee motivation have been affected in the long run as reported by Buckley (2016)

At present scenario, creative aspects of the employee motivation have gained immense interest with its relation to the productivity parameter and have been practiced by different business sectors. As studied by Nelson (2012), factors that influence the level of motivation can be intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is imparted by fulfilling physiological needs of the employees where as the latter emphasizes on reward programs such as incentives, bonus, medical covers, etc (Buckley, 2015). Motivation level can be heightened by realizing which set of intrinsic and extrinsic energy forces is most suitable for an employee (Nelson, 2012). As per Tracy (2014), working environment, work design, effective leadership also serve as motivation factors. Consideration of the aforesaid parameters heightens the motivation level which is expressed in the enhanced productivity of workforce.

Low-productivity has adverse impact on financial aspects, reputation and sustainability of a firm and mostly affected is banking sector as it demands a highly evolving and dynamic work environment (Morris, 2012). Hence, in this study the researcher has selected HSBC, the prominent financial and banking service provider of UK.

As reported by Agnew (2015), HSBC has recently lost its place in the list of best working places and the employee reviews on Indeed (2016) reveals the rigid working conditions prevail in HSBC and Glass door (2016) reports the lack of progression and high pressure associated with the work. The report of White and Macaskill (2016) shows a share fall of HSBC by 11%. This evidently point out to the lack of proper motivational strategies of HSBC. Hence, in this study, the researcher investigates the diverse parameters that enhance the motivation level which in turn determines their productivity.

1.3 Rationale

An employee is the primary asset of any firm which cannot be exchanged and an organisation should consider the employee in the trajectory of growth in all means (Sale, 2015). A de-motivated employee does not bring any innovation aspect to the firm, a high requirement of today’s competitive banking sector where as motivation exaggerates personnel productivity and revenue growth of the firm as stated by Nelson (2012). Achievement of organizational objectives can be done by properly boosting the employees with motivation. Organization which fails to identify   the components such as financial incentives, recognition programs, rewards, training programs are the necessary means to raise the motivation level of an employee ultimately is at stake (Ong, 2015).

A considerable portion of the workforce has been found out as unsatisfied (Khan, 2015) and this might contribute to the low-productivity issues faced by banking sector. Continuous implementation of motivation helps in the revival of employees and their productivity in terms of loyalty and dedication to work. HSBC has exemplary motivation strategies but the employee reviews on Glassdoor (2016) shows out its improper execution which results in the declining productivity. One of the factor with which a company is reviewed by customers is the performance of employees and it is directly proportional to the motivation level an employee gain from the firm (Buckley, 2016). Organizations exaggerate on its customers but fail to take employee satisfaction in to account which has direct impact on the profitability of the organization (Sales, 2015). As reported by Consumer affairs (2016) and Bank tracker (2016), customer complaints on HSBC employees are highly mentionable and can be taken as direct indication of the low-productivity which emphasizes the absence of motivation factors in the HSBC employees that influence their attitude and behaviour in work. The un-satisfaction in the performance of HSBC employees is also shown in the reviews of Mozo (2016). Hence in this study the investigator inspects the influence of motivation level on the productivity of employees taking the case of HSBC, so that suggestions can be made on improving their motivation programs.

1.4 Research Aims

The aim of this research is to assess the relationship between motivation level and the productivity of employees considering HSBC, the financial firm of UK that has significant issues regarding its employee sector. This will also shed light on the improvisation measures that need to be followed in enhancing the employee productivity in realizing the organization goals.

1.5 Research Objectives

  • To determine the level of motivation of employees of HSBC.
  • To understand the factors that affected the performance of employees of HSBC.
  • To analyse the impact of motivation programs on the productivity of employees considering the case of HSBC, UK.
  • To impart suggestions to HSBC UK to emphasise on motivation programs to enhance the productivity of employees

1.6 Limitations

  • Consideration of single organization
  • Time frame would not allow higher sample size.

The applicability of the research issue in general is highly limited due to the small sample size and as the researcher could only concentrate on one organization due to time and cost frame, the researcher would be limited in inferring valid result.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter deals with the review of previous knowledge as well as prevailing works performed by other authors regarding the area of this research study. Incorporating adequate information, the researcher has chosen all the studies according to their significance associated with the research objectives. This chapter also involves important theories with which the researcher constructs an overall outline of this study.

2.2 Employee motivation

According to Gagne (2014), employee motivation is a technique or techniques to encourage workforce enhancement in terms of creativity, loyalty and competence. It influences employees’ behaviour, degree of perseverance and strength while working towards the established goals and objectives of an organization. Generally, there are two levels of employee motivation: extrinsic- external elements that prompt employee’s to work towards organization’s goals and intrinsic- self motivation of an employee. This mode’s of motivation strengthens the level of satisfaction of the employees and thereby encouraging high performance and efficiency states, Naeem (2015).

2.3 Impact of employee motivational factors on employee performance

Performance is the art to complete the task within the defined boundaries, finds Ljungberg (2009). According to Saeed et al (2013), there are lots of factors such as manager’s attitude, job content, personal issues, etc that affect the performance of employees. Furthermore, organizational culture has a significant bearing on employee performance (Bang, 2013). Coupled with the above discussed factors, employee performance cannot be increased without offering effective financial rewards, states Dencker, Gruber and Shah (2009).

Manager’s attitude

As stated by Saeed et al. (2013), the energetic performance of employees solely depends on manager’s attitude. If the manager is good enough to monitor the employees then their performance chart lifts-up positively inducing tremendous changes in organisational performance. Any organisation can come to the top most level, if the manager of the organisation is impartial and maintains healthy relationship with their employees.

Personal problems

According to Gruber and Shah (2009), the major factors that affect the efficiency of employees are their personal issues. If the mind setup of employee is not good then the work cannot be completed with dedication. It is also noted that the personal problems also affect the intelligence of the employees. A positive outcome will only come from a fresh and tension free mind.

Organization’s culture

A trouble-free and comfortable working environment encourages employees to work more efficiently and effectively (Bang, 2013). An organizational culture which is good and competitive is essential for enhancing the routine work force. If the organization is having a powerful and motivating culture then all the members are encouraged to work more. Ljungberg (2009) states that organizational culture and employee performance are inter-related.

Financial rewards

In the view point of Dencker, Gruber and Shah (2009), if the performance of employees is appraised by giving rewards, then their performance level will be increased and they can actively complete the tasks. So this is an effective method for motivating the employees up to a great extent. Incentives also increase employees’ dedication towards the work which in turn improve the performance opines (Saeed et al., 2013).

Job content

The main necessity of any job is that it should be creative and also demanding goals to complete (Bang, Ross and Reio, 2013). Employees output will be more if they are given with creative tasks. Job rotation is one of the main solutions for enriching the job. In order to make the employees free from getting bored with routine tasks innovative and creative tasks should be given which will increase employee productivity.

Thus from the above discussion, it is clear that the performance of employees id dependant on various factors of an organisation and the major factors are manager’s attitude, organizational culture, personal problems and job content, financial rewards etc.

2.4 Impact of motivational programs on employee productivity

Employee productivity is influenced by various motivational factors which can be classified in to tangible and intangible (Uzonna, 2013.).Tangible factors include different means by financial support, offered to employee where as the other includes factors by which the job is recognized. The enhancement of employee productivity can be further achieved by promoting labour skills and efficiently employing training/development programs (Jayarathna, 2014).

Reasonable salary

According to Saeed et al. (2013) reasonable and timely payment keeps employee’s motivated and enhances performance. Habitual constancy in enhanced performance is attained by a good wage and in conjunction with the monetary rewards, administration employs other intangible motivational factors to optimize the effect (Jayarathna, 2014). 

Financial incentives

According to Forson (2012), to increase employee productivity, incentive payments should be based on the quality of work done rather than considering the time spent on it. To deliver employees with ideal incentives to attain the objectives, management should identify the predominant level and way of encouragement that would be helpful for the usage of appropriate incentives in order to direct the employees efficiently to achieve organizational objectives (Asim, 2013).

Opportunity for advancement

The most available and desired benefits for the employee are the chances to get trained and developed to advance better (Uzonna, 2013). Trained employee have the ability and willingness to undertake more control towards the work and are able to satisfy the customers in such way that it improves customer faithfulness. Those employees who understand the company in-depth are more satisfied, complains less and are more motivated. This leads to the enhancement of employee productivity (Manzoor, 2012).

Job security

Due to the faithfulness of employees or as a token of understanding for their long term commitment to the company, they invest more on their work, for the company benefit (Jayarathna, 2014). Whereas Asim (2013) argues that, employees work less and will be less productivity, when their jobs are safe and secure. By providing job security, firm will not be able to dismissal of employees will take more effort, compensation and time.

Recognition and appreciation

Manzoor (2012) states that an appreciation or recognition given to a work done or for the employees’ effort could be more productive that making more satisfied and happy workers. Whereas Forson (2012) opines, if only the mistakes made by the employees are noticed and the hard-work and effort put forth by the employees are ignored, will make workers dissatisfied and less productive.

Participation in decision making

On the other hand, another vital factor that motivates employees are the monetary incentives, which make the employees more focused in attaining organizational goals more effectively, for without their support and co-operation there would be a great deal of managerial energy wasted (Uzonna, 2013).

2.5 The case study of HSBC, UK

Hong Kong Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) is one among the world’s popular banking organizations. During 1992, Midland Bank in UK became a fully-owned member of HSBC group, and during 1999 it was renamed as HSBC. The bank globally employs 260,000 employees with 47,300 people in UK (HSBC, 2016). Their linkage spreads in 71 countries and territories in Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa, etc (Barton, 2013).

HSBC regarded the mean of employee motivation by providing distinct employee benefit. In HSBC, managers motivate their subordinates by various financial rewards, which strengthen the link between employee and firm and develops a sense of togetherness, which in turn enhances employee productivity (HSBC, 2016).

2.5.1 Objectives of employee motivation in HSBC, UK

The main objective of HSBC in offering employee motivation is toprovide with appropriate rewards (HSBC, 2016). For this the employee needs to be aware of their potentials at the work place. They should also know their liberty to select goals and options. Employees should also understand that they too have the responsibility and the right to prompt the outcomes by their activities. People have expectation on the rewards that they get. Meanwhile the rewards can comprise of recognition, friendship, money, the opportunity to get new offers, security, and a sense to commence something valuable and to make a difference at the workplace (Behar, 2016). At the same time for many the major reason for motivation is the opportunity to attain their ambition.

Employees can also be motivated by developing a personal approach plan to improve the employees’ desire. This could be useful in setting new objectives for the employee. Recognising the employee’s hard-work and appreciating them on it is also a way of motivation for the employees (Barton, 2013).  Identifying and correcting the issues will also improve the productivity of the employee. Seeking employees’ suggestion will be helpful in improving the business as well as increasing the employee productivity.

2.5.2 Impact of employee motivation on the performance of HSBC employees

First quarter sales of 2013 showed a pre- tax profit of $8.4 which is a bifold of the earlier year as reported by Barton (2013) and HSBC continuously updated its motivational strategies and plans to provide a habitual motivation to its employees. Its commitment to reach the highest on the trajectory of growth is evident in the report by Barton (2013). As briefed by (HSBC, 2016) its employee oriented schemes include private medical insurance, income protection and pension scheme etc which immensely help the employees to be motivated enough to heighten their performance level.

Morris (2012) states that the best working environment of HSBC helps the employees to bring out their maximum capabilities and it has always aimed at eliminating de-motivating factors like fear and inhibition. Given proper support and due encouragement, an employee can excel as reported by Khan (2015). HSBC employs suitable training and development programs and also integrate trust, team work, comfort and flexibility in the working environment to work on the motivation levels of its labour force (HSBC, 2016). Manager provides support to all the employees instead of imparting mere information and targets the accelerated output by integrating the aforesaid essential motivational components.

Agnew (2015) reported recently, contradictory to aforesaid factors that HSBC fails to establish position in the survey on the best places to work. Glass door (2016) reviews elaborate on the unfavourable working environment prevailing in HSBC. In spite of the struggle to achieve the competitive lead, White and Macaskill (2016) report a fall by 11% in the share of HSBC. All this point towards the necessity of HSBC to restructure its motivational strategies and hence the investigator will explore on various motivational levels that heighten the labour productivity.

2.5.3 Impact of motivational programs on productivity of HSBC employees

Although HSBC is facilitating employees with several schemes intending at training and development, it is obvious that employees look for other motivational aspects that foster employee loyalty and contentment. Considering reward scheme as an important strategy for associating employees’ motivation and their capability to work, HSBC provides reasonable compensation and rewards as the organization is aware of how to entice and retain their proficient workforce (Barton, 2013). Benefiting both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to their customers, HSBC additionally offers financial and non- financial rewards. In fact, HSBC is placed among one of the firms that provide admirable salary to their employees (Khan, 2015).

HSBC has adopted a fine method for managing rewards that encompass several policies and schemes that cover salary increments, staff discounts, subsidised meals and bonuses (HSBC, 2016). Moreover, employees are anticipated with getting other advantages including retirement’s welfares and other benefits. Besides, the reward scheme put forth by HSBC is easily understandable; thereby enabling employees to function dearth of obstacles. This enhances the reliance and confidence of employees towards an organization and its objectives, explain Chaudhary and Sharma (2012). Furthermore, HSBC considers employee flexibility with utmost priority as it initiates umpteen possibilities for employees at work and the freedom to choose options and goals. As a result, HSBC has launched a benefit-package, ‘My Choice’, with which employees are authorized to select their preferred combination of benefit schemes, cites Mozo (2016). Along with benefiting different kinds of rewards such as recognition, security, money, friendships etc. the HSBC encourages its employees in establishing a feeling of belongingness towards the organization. Also, HSBC keeps honest and open communication with their employees regarding the organization’s decisions and business performance.

However, there are several negative implications to some of the strategies adopted by HSBC. Issues regarding the equitability in rewarding system due to managers’ favouritism are considered as a major allegation towards HSBC. Considering employees on the basis of priorities rather than competence has invited a lot of criticism against the organization. Circumstances in which unnecessary and irrelevant changes are created has imparted stressful atmosphere for employees.

2.6 Summary

In this literature review section, the author has performed a detailed review of research variables employee level of motivation and productivity. The author has also discussed the level of motivation of employees of HSBC Bank, UK and its impact on employee productivity. From the literature, the researcher recognized that there exists an interdependent link between the level of motivation of employees and their productivity at workplace.

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

Kumar (2014) refers research methodology as a process or method applied to collect required information with the aim of finding solutions to research problems. It is also considered as an organized and methodical investigation employed in the area of a research study. The different types of research methods used by the researcher for undertaking the present study effectively are discussed in this section. It includes research philosophy, research strategy, research approach, sampling process, data collection tools, data analysis plan etc. Besides, a proper justification for the chosen approaches and accessibility and ethical issues are also given in this chapter.

3.2 Research philosophy

As per the viewpoint of Grix (2010), a research philosophy implies that the way through which information regarding the area of study should be assembled, evaluated and applied. Positivism philosophy is employed when researchers adopt a scientific philosophical stance for producing findings in a generalised and theoretical format (Wimmer and Dominick, 2010). It is, therefore, to bring objectivity in research studies. On the other hand, interpretivism, according to Schwartz-Shea and‎ Yanow (2013) is a philosophy that proponents that it is important for researchers to comprehend research issues through humanistic perspectives as this philosophy advocates subjectivity. Realism philosophy outlines that the subjects of research studies are independent of the researchers’ perspective (Grix, 2010).

For the present study, the researcher has employed interpretivism philosophy because by applying this philosophy, the researcher was capable of acquiring a good understanding of the relationship between employee’s level of motivation and their productivity at workplace. With the assistance of this philosophy, the researcher took a subjective angle for effectively analyzing and interpreting the research problem. To what extent the employees were motivated and how it affected their level of productivity while functioning was studied by the researcher so as to determine the relationship between both these factors. A critical assessment as well as a thorough exploration was possible for the researcher to perform a deep investigation and hence, interpretivism philosophy aided the researcher in identifying the relationship between employee’s level of motivation and their productivity at workplace by taking a case study of HSBC, UK.

3.3 Research approach

It has been stated by Jonathan (2010) that a research approach is the procedures implemented by researchers for the successful collection of adequate data in a logical method. The two common types of research approaches employed by researchers are deductive approach and inductive approach. Deductive approach is intending at testing assumptions or theories (Collins, 2010). This approach is applied when researchers want to analyse particular phenomena in the light of a proposed theory. In deductivism, the flow of a research process is from general statements or hypothesis to a particular fact. On the other hand, Wilson (2014) finds that inductive approach aids researcher in conducting studies without referring or concentrating on pre-existing theories. Therefore, this approach is considered as more flexible in nature. With an aim to develop theories, inductivism helps researchers to reach logically at inferences and conclusions as the research studies progress.

For carrying out this research study, the researcher has undertaken inductive approach. With the support of this approach, the researcher was capable of making specific observations based on the data regarding the employee’s level of motivation and their productivity at workplace and further, reached conclusions that could be generalized. Additionally, inductive approach aided the researcher in formulating the research questions for gathering substantial data for this research study. With the relevant information collected, the researcher was competent to explain patterns that were developed using the formulated theories. Thus, by taking the inductive approach, the researcher generalized a set of perceptions regarding the experiences, beliefs and viewpoint on the area of study. Moreover, the researcher analyzed the research problems with the investigation made on motivation and productivity of employees of HSBC, UK.  Hence, the execution of inductive research approach has assisted the researcher in acquiring a proficient knowledge of the relationship between employee’s level of motivation and their productivity at workplace.

3.4 Research purpose

The interdependency and the significance of identified variables in the research issue are brought up with appropriate use of research purpose (Hedge, 2015). Explanatory purpose needs prior information on the issue to establish the cause and effect relationship of variables (Shajahan, 2014). Descriptive purpose elaborates on the issue subjectively to provide description of the variables where as exploratory sets up the research investigation (Hedge, 2015). Hence the researcher has adopted exploratory purpose to initiate and navigate through the data. Identification of the factors that affect motivation levels of HSBC employees could be derived with the use of this purpose (Shajahan, 2014). The researcher could also establish the significance of variables in order to analyze the problem by evaluating the most likely causes. The researcher has identified that the extrinsic factors that provides financial support and the intrinsic factors which satisfy physiological needs contribute to the motivation level and also that affect the HSBC employee productivity so that suggestions could be provided with which the firm can enhance its motivational programmes (Ukandu and Ukpere, 2011).

3.5 Research strategy

Interviews, case study and surveys are some of the strategical procedures used to accumulate and substantiate information on research issue according to Shajahan (2014). Direct and unbiased access to the data is achieved by interview strategy through structured, semi -structured or unstructured set of questions (Bhojanna and Murti, 2009). Case study validates issue by presenting a contemporary example and survey generates large quantity of data within a small time frame (Bell and Waters, 2014). This study used individual in-depth interview and self administered survey which benefited the research by facilitating the accumulation of valid data within the allotted time period (Easterby-smith, Thorpe and Paul, 2012). Interview session could reveal factors that influence motivation level of employees of HSBC. The importance HSBC has given to motivational programmes as a strategical tool to enhance employee productivity is also well understood. Self-administered survey of employees shed light on issues prevailing in work environment of HSBC. The lack of timely motivation could be seen on de-motivated employees and in their low-productivity. Survey found out the improper implementation of motivational strategies though managers emphasized on the importance of motivation to make the employees more engaged and stress-free. Thus by combining these strategies, researcher could establish the research issue effectively.

3.6 Data collection method

According to the study of Kumar (2014) Data collection methods includes the techniques that are required to collect and assess the information regarding the research topic in a systematic manner. Through this process the researcher will be able to obtain valid evidences and data to resolve a specific research problem in the study. Data collection methods can be classified into Primary data collection and secondary data collection methods.

Primary data collection method refers to the tools and techniques adopted by the researcher to collect necessary data related to the research topic and it includes collection of quantitative and qualitative data. In primary data collection the information gathered by the researcher is through direct research and it includes interview, survey etc.  In secondary data collection method the researcher gathers additional information regarding the research topic by analysing and reviewing data collected from secondary sources like journals, newspapers, online sources, etc. According to Kumar (2014) primary data is found to be valid and realistic whereas secondary data must be evaluated and might not be reliable. In primary data collection, information collected from interview is qualitative whereas data collected through survey is quantitative in nature.

The researcher has used both the Primary and secondary data collection methods for gathering information related to the research topic. The researcher was able to collect primary data by conducting interview with managers and survey with employees of HSBC, UK. In- depth interview and self-administered survey were conducted with the managers and employees to collect relevant information on the relation between employee’s level of motivation and their productivity at work place. In addition, additional data collected from secondary sources aided the researcher to explore more about the research topic. The qualitative and quantitative data collected has helped the researcher to have a clear idea about the relationship between employee’s level of motivation and their productivity at HSBC, UK.

3.7 Sample selection

In accordance to the study of Levy and Lemeshow (2013) the success of any research study depends on the sample size determination. Based on time and cost of study the researcher chooses appropriate sample size. Population is referred as a pool of samples. The characteristics of the population and samples in it are related to the characteristics of the research problem. In a research study the Sample size are selected based on the scope of the research study and by using suitable sampling methods.

The researcher has chosen the employees and managers of HSBC, UK as the population for selecting the samples. Due to time and cost limitation the researcher has selected only few samples. Thus, a sample size of 22 including 2managers and 20 employees were selected for the study. The researcher has visited HSBC located at Great Portland and St,Regent St in UK for conducting interview and survey and the sample size chosen is appropriate while considering the entire population.

3.8 Sampling methods

Sampling method is referred as the technique adopted by the researcher to choose an appropriate sample from the population. There are two types of sampling methods such as Non probability sampling and probability sampling. In Probability sampling the samples are selected from the samples at equal probability and it is said that the samples have a non zero probability. In Non probability sampling the sample is selected based on the convenience and requirement of the researcher. Probability sampling can be classified into Simple random, cluster, systematic and stratified sampling whereas non probability sampling is classified into judgment, convenience quota and snowfall sampling.

The researcher has adopted Stratified random sampling as the sampling method for choosing appropriate samples for the study. This method has helped the researcher to divide the population into different sections based on the research topic. The researcher has conducted interview with the managers and the diverse nature of managers are reduced by using stratified random sampling. Similarly the researcher has conducted surveys with employees by dividing them into different sections sharing a common feature based on the research topic. Stratified random sampling helps the researcher in managing time during the study states Jackson (2015). This method has helped the researcher in gathering appropriate information regarding the relationship between employee’s motivation level and their productivity at HSBC, UK.

3.9 Data analysis plan

In this research study the researcher has used both primary and secondary data collection methods to gather appropriate data and also to evaluate assess the collected data. The researcher has also evaluated and reviewed external and internal secondary sources for collecting additional information. Primary data collection method has adopted in the study in order to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The researcher has conducted in-depth interview with managers and self-administered survey with employees of HSBC, UK. Descriptive analysis has been used by the researcher in order to analyze and assess both qualitative and quantitative data. The researcher has used bar charts, pie charts and table for analysing the collected data. The researcher was able to arrive at suitable conclusions after analysing and examining the qualitative and quantitative data and evaluated the relationship of employee’s motivation level and productivity.

3.10 Ethical issues

Adhering to Data Protection Act of 1998, the present research study is strictly sticking to the ethical norms as outlined in the act. Prior to the commencement of the data collection process, the researcher had sought required permission from the respondents who took part in interview and survey process. The researcher has taken care of excluding all kind of prejudice and biases in the research findings. Furthermore, the researcher has ensured the confidentiality of data gathered and information including nature, goal and scope of the study was detailed to the respondents. The researcher has also provided appropriate references for the data.

3.11 Summary

The interdependency of motivation level and productivity by taking the case of HSBC could be established effectively by the use of appropriate research procedures and by justifying the adoption of each technique as briefed by this section. The mass qualitative and quantitative data have been interpreted and evaluated by descriptive data analysis to further ensure the validity of the research.

CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introduction

This chapter mainly details the analysis and interpretation of the data acquired through the interview and survey analysis. The researcher has collected the qualitative and quantitative data with the help of primary data collection methods. For performing the interview and survey the researcher has visited the branches of HSBC situated at Great Portland and St,Regent St in UK. For obtaining the qualitative information the researcher has carried out individual in-depth interview on 2 managers of HSBC respectively. And for attaining the quantitative information on 20 employees of HSBC the researcher carried out self-administered survey.

4.2. Qualitative Data Analysis

The questionnaires prepared by the researcher for the interview and the opinions of the managers are listed below:

1.    In your opinion, what is the importance of maintaining the level of motivation of employees and what is the objective of employee motivation in HSBC?

Manager 1 and 2:

“Employees are considered as the valuable assets of the organization as their major role is highly inevitable for achieving the long term objectives. So for improving the talents and skills of the employees, employee motivation is highly necessary. Employee motivation helps firms to motivate the performance and productivity level of the employees thereby making them highly capable for achieving the goals and aims of the bank and finally resulting in the enhancement of the employee retention rate. Our bank’s main objective of motivating the employees is to build up an emotional attachment with the bank so that it results in enhanced employee loyalty. We highly give importance to financial reward systems and also provide various types of benefits to the employees for enhancing their productivity level”.

2.    What are the factors that you think that affected the performance of employees of your Bank?

Manager 1 and 2:

“In my opinion there are many factors that affect the performance of the employees and they are job content, attitude of the managers, organizational culture etc. We highly support and give appropriate guidance to the employees for motivating their performance level. We also encourage the employees by providing them with training and development programs along with extreme team support. The employees are also motivated with the effective organizational culture provided by our bank making the employees enhance their competitiveness. The job content of the employees is also improved by giving them rotation in their works and creative works and the bank also focus in providing the employees with financial awards for enhancing the dedication of the employees so that it leads to enhancement in the employee productivity”.

3.    How has motivational programs influenced your Bank?

Manager 1 and 2:

“For improving the performance and productivity level of the employees our bank highly promotes motivational programs such as reward schemes, bonuses, staff discounts, benefit packages, salary increments etc. These schemes have highly helped the bank to motivate the productivity of the employees leading them to exhibit high performances. With these programs the confidence and content level of the employees are raised along with the enhancements of the employee loyalty towards the bank”.

4.    Do you think that motivational programs stimulate the productivity of HSBC employees?

Manager 1 and 2:

“Motivational programs offered by our bank has a significant role in highly stimulating the employee productivity and performance. These programs encourage and stimulate the motivation level of the employees and foster them to provide excellent outputs that highly benefit the bank to achieve their goals and objectives. The motivational programs enhance the dedication and commitment of the employees towards the bank which thereby aids in stimulating the productivity of the employees”.

4.3 Quantitative analysis

The quantitative data presented below is collected through self-administrated survey conducted among 20 employees. The survey analysis is categorized under the research objectives for getting a detailed picture about the findings. The data is shown in the form of charts and graphs. The survey data is also analyzed by the researcher with reverence to the findings from the literature review.

1.    Age

Pie chart 4.1: Age of the employees

Source: Created by the author

From the above survey it can be concluded that the number of employees who took part in the survey are between the age group of 36-45 years. This could be because the bank hires employees with experience.

2.    Gender

Pie chart 4.2: Age of the employees

Source: Created by the author

From the above data it is found that the bank has equal number of male and female employees. This shows that the company gives equal importance to both male and female.

3.    Work Experience

Pie chart 4.3: work experience of the employees

Source: Created by the author

According to HSBC (2016) the bank globally employs 260,000 employees with 47,300 people in UK. They also provide various financial rewards to the employees. The above survey shows that the employees are quite satisfied with their work in the bank.

4.    In your opinion, which of the following is the main advantage related with motivational programs of HSBC?

Pie chart 4.4: Advantage of motivational program

Source: Created by the author

From the reports by HSBC (2016) managers motivate their subordinates by various financial rewards, which strengthen the link between employee and firm and develops togetherness, which in turn enhances employee productivity. From the survey it is found that most of the employees feel that motivational program increases performance.

5. In your opinion, what are the major factors that adversely influenced the effectiveness of your performance in HSBC?

Pie chart 4.5: Factors influencing performance

Source: Created by the author

The main factor that influences performance, according to the employees is manager’s attitude. As khan (2015) stated with proper support and due encouragement, an employee can excel as reported.

6.    Please rate the following motivational programs on the basis of their level of influence on your loyalty and contentment in HSBC (1-appalling, 2-moderate, 3-good and 4- excellent)

Motivational programs

Appalling

Moderate

Good

Excellent

Reward scheme

30%

10%

40%

20%

Reasonable compensation

5%

35%

40%

20%

Admirable salary

30%

20%

10%

40%

Retirement’s welfares

20%

30%

5%

45%

‘My Choice’ benefit package

30%

15%

40%

15%

Other schemes such as staff discounts, bonuses, salary increment etc

30%

5%

20%

45%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4.1: Motivational programs influence rating

Source: Created by the author

Bar chart 4.1: Motivational programs influence rating

Source: Created by the author

From the above bar graph it can be concluded that the employees feel that the reward scheme of the is good, this supports the findings from the literature review that HSBC has adopted a fine method for managing rewards that encompass several policies and schemes that cover (HSBC, 2016).

7.    How do you rate the efficiency of HSBC’s motivational programs in fostering productivity in the workplace?

Pie chart 4.6: Efficiency of motivational program

Source: Created by the author

60% of the employees feel that the efficiency of the motivational program is average. This shows that the bank needs to improve or renew their programs because the employees are only partially satisfied.

8.    In your opinion, which of the following section requires most improvements in HSBC to emphasis on motivational programs to enhance employee productivity?

Pie chart 4.7: Sections requiring improvements

Source: Created by the author

The employees who took part in the survey feel that the majority of the employees feel that the manager’s attitude towards the employees needs to be improved. This contradicts the report from the literature review where HSBC (2016) keeps honest and open communication with their employees regarding the organization’s decisions and business performance.

CHAPTER 5: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

5.1 Introduction

In this research study, the relationship between employee’s level of motivation and their productivity at work place is analyzed by considering the case study of HSBC, UK. In the earlier chapter of the study the findings acquired through the survey and interview analysis are discussed and evaluated. This chapter cross references the qualitative data findings with the quantitative data findings for obtaining the similarities and gaps between them. In this chapter the gaps are also identified and discussed.

5.2 Cross reference with theory and practice

From the survey conducted on the employees it was identified that most of the employee of HSBC were satisfied with their work at the bank. This statement was reported in the same manner by HSBC (2016) that globally the bank employs 260,000 employees with 47,300 people in UK. Therefore it can be noticed that an agreement occurs among the quantitative data analysis and the literature review.

The results of the survey pointed out that the main advantage attained by the employees related with motivational programs of HSBC was favourable environment for working. In the literature review Morris (2013) stated the bank was able to bring out the maximum capabilities of the employees by providing with the best working environment. Thus it can be observed that an alignment occurs among the literature and the quantitative data analysis.

The HSBC managers in the qualitative data analysis opined that the reward schemes and other beneficial programs highly played a crucial role in improving the productivity and performance of the employees. This was agreed by Barton (2013) in the literature review by stating that reward scheme was an important strategy that highly motivated the employees to improve their working capacity thereby exhibiting enhanced performances. Hence it can be noticed that between the observations of Barton (2013) and the opinions of the managers a similarity occurs.

From the reports of HSBC (2016) it was noticed that the bank provided appropriate training and developmental programs for enhancing the trust and team work among the employees.  Likewise the HSBC managers in the qualitative data analysis revealed that their bank highly concentrated in improving the skills and talents of the employees by providing them with effective training and motivational programs. Thus it can be identified a correlation occurs among the reports of HSBC (2016) and the qualitative data analysis.

5.3 Identifying gaps

In the interview the managers of HSBC stated that their attitude towards the employees were highly supportive and friendly for enhancing the performance level of the employees. Khan (2015) in the literature review asserted that the managers provided great support and encouragement to the employees for bringing out their maximum capabilities.  However most of the employees in the quantitative analysis opined the manager’s attitude as the major factors that adversely influenced the effectiveness of their performance in HSBC. Thus there occurs a disagreement in between the interview and survey and a gap is created among the qualitative and quantitative findings.

From the survey it was noted that majority of the employees rated the efficiency of HSBC’s motivational programs as average in fostering productivity in the workplace. But this was opposed by the HSBC managers stating that their bank highly focused in providing the employees with effective motivational programs that highly helped in enhancing productivity of the employees. In the literature review similar observations were made by Barton (2013) revealing that the motivational programs highly helped in fostering the loyalty and contentment of the employees finally increasing the level of productivity. Therefore it can be noticed that there is a similarity among the findings of the interview and survey and a gap is recognized in between the two statements.

In the survey, most of the employees opined that the main advantage that they achieved related with motivational programs of HSBC was favorable working environment. And only 20% of the employees each opined enhanced performance and productivity. However a contradictory opinion occurs there as the managers in the qualitative data analysis pointed out that with the effectiveness of the motivational programs the bank was highly able to improve the performance and productivity level of the employees. Barton (2013) and Khan (2015) in the existing literature also reported that the motivational programs were highly beneficial in enhancing the performance and productivity of the employees. Thus it can be noted that dissimilarity occurs among the survey and the view points of Barton (2013) and Khan (2015) and finally revealing a gap between the survey and the existing literature.

5.4 Summary

In this chapter the researcher has cross referenced and discussed the findings of the primary and secondary data analysis. And similarities and gaps have been acquired after analyzing and interpreting the qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Moreover, in this chapter the researcher has also detailed the gaps identified.

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Introduction

This chapter of the study concluded the major research findings on the basis of research objectives and also provides recommendations for improving the motivation programs of HSBC for enhancing employee productivity. The constraints faced by the researcher for carry out the study and recommendations for the future researches are also included in this chapter.

6.2 Conclusions

This segment summarizes the key research findings on the basis of objectives of the study:

Objective 1: To determine the level of motivation of employees of HSBC.

It was identified from the interview analysis that, HSBC has considered the employees as valuable assets for attaining the long term objectives of the organization. The bank has given high priority to employee motivation for enhancing their job skill and talent. Effective employee motivation programs increases employee job satisfaction and it enhances employee performance and retention rate. HSBC has maintained emotional attachment with employees for enhancing their loyalty towards the bank. Financial reward systems and various other types of benefits were provided by the bank to the employees for enhancing their productivity level. From the survey analysis, researcher understood that, motivational programs of HSBC offer favorable working atmosphere for the employees. In the literature review, studies of HSBC (2016), Behar (2016) and Barton (2013) also mentioned similar findings. By identifying the similarity between primary and secondary data findings, researcher successfully reached at the first objective of the study.    

Objective 2: To understand the factors that affected the performance of employees of HSBC.

From the interview analysis, researcher understood that, job content, attitude of the managers, organizational culture, etc. are the key factors influencing the performance of employees of HSBC. It was also noted that, the bank has provide appropriate guidance and support for motivating the employees. Training and development programs, extreme team support, etc also enhanced the job performance of the employees. It was understood from the survey analysis that, managers’ attitude towards employee influenced the performance of the staffs. Barton (2013), Morris (2012), Khan (2015) and Agnew (2015) also mentioned about these factors in their study and thus the researcher identified this objective successfully.

Objective 3: To analyze the impact of motivation programs on the productivity of employees considering the case of HSBC, UK.

The interview findings revealed that, employee motivation programs of HSBC played an important role in enhancing employees’ productivity. For improving the performance and productivity level of the employees, HSBC bank highly promotes motivational programs such as reward schemes, bonuses, staff discounts, benefit packages, salary increments etc. These programs were highly effective for enhancing the job performance of the employees. However, the survey findings revealed that, motivation programs of HSBC make only average influence on enhancing the productivity of the employees. The study observations of Mozo (2016), Chaudhary and Sharma (2012), Khan (2015) and Barton (2013) also mentioned about the direct relation between employee motivation and employee productivity. Thus the researcher successfully reached at the final objective of the study.

6.3 Recommendations

The fourth objective of the study was to impart suggestions to HSBC, UK to emphasize on motivation programs to enhance the productivity of employees. The researcher provide following recommendations:

·         Maintenance of equilibrium in reward system

It was understood from the study that, HSBC has paid rewards for the employees unequally and it created employee dissatisfaction. So, researcher recommended for the maintenance of equilibrium in reward system will motivates the employees and it will enhance their productivity.

·         Improvement in managers’ attitude towards employees

It was found from the study that, rude and disinterested attitude of managers adversely affected the employee performance. The researcher suggested for the improvement in managers’ attitude towards employees for encouraging the performance of the staffs.

·         Offer job security

The company should ensure the job security of the staffs for motivating the job performance and productivity of the organization.

·         Prioritising employees on the basis of competence

HSBC needs to provide rewards and extra benefits to employees on the basis of the employs skills and productivity. This will boost the performance level and loyalty of employees.

·         Consideration of employees’ requirements

The bank needs to make frequent employee surveys and interactions with employees for understanding the requirements, reviews, problems, etc of the staffs. This will aid HSBC to take suitable measures to solve problems and to fulfill the needs of the employees. This will positively influence the productivity of the staffs.

6.4 Research limitations

Because of strict time restriction for the submission of the dissertation, the researcher faced difficulty for selecting sufficient sample size for the study. Lack of reliable previous studies related to the research problem created barrier for gathering secondary data. Usage of descriptive analysis method created constraint for evaluating the collected quantitative data effectively. For analyzing the relationship between employee motivation and employee productivity, the researcher has only analyzed the case of HSBC in UK and it created barrier for making a general conclusion on the research topic.

6.5 Recommendations for the future studies

The future researcher should raise the sample size of the future studies to reach at more reliable result on the research problem. Instead of just mentioning the transcript of the interview; future researchers can adopt thematic approach for analyzing the collected qualitative data more effectively. More secondary data should be collect by the future researchers from more secondary sources for enhancing the knowledge about the topic.  Instead of focusing on banking sector, future researchers can analyze another industry for analyzing the same research problem. By selecting two or more organizations, future researchers can make a comparative study on the research problem. Regression analysis method is more effective than descriptive analysis method for analyzing quantitative data. So, future researchers can select regression analysis method for effectively analyzing the quantitative data.

REFERENCES

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APPENDIX I

Personal Statement (Reflective Report)

Introduction

The skills and advantages to the researcher by undertaking the present research study are included in this chapter. The main objective of this reflective report is to analyze the researcher’s experience, knowledge and observations that the researcher attained through the accomplishment of this research study. Hence, this section outlines the skills and benefits earned by the researcher with the progress of this particular study.

Skills before doing this study

Prior to the commencement of this research, the researcher had developed a basic knowledge regarding the employee’s level of motivation and employee productivity at the workplace of banking sector. As part of knowledge acquisition for the initiation of this study, the researcher had gone through the course materials related to human resource management. The researcher had a belief that employee management and implementation of support programs was easy to execute. Although the researcher frequented various firms where the functioning level and nature of work were of simpler formats, the researcher, therefore, had a little and restricted insight regarding the diverse aspects of banking sectors despite the researcher’s profound knowledge in human resource management matters.

Employee’s level of motivation is related to employees’ expectation and recognition that are crucial for attaining increased productivity can be considered as a successful master plan for organizations. However, the researcher hardly possesses any understanding of this strategy before conducting this research study.

Skills obtained after this study

As mentioned above, a basic understanding was developed by the researcher regarding banking sector in the UK as well as the performance of HSBC in the banking industry and its related factors. For performing such a detailed observation, the researcher had to gather bulk data. This improved the researcher’s ability in conducting a thorough evaluation of different types of data. Moreover, acquisition of evaluation skills can also be applied in practical situations; hence, attainment of these skills will besides benefit the researcher in future.

Development of communication and time management skills are other great benefits that the researcher achieved doing this study. These skills will aid the researcher in both professional as well as personal phase of life. Furthermore, organizational skill was acquired by the researcher through the researcher’s acquaintance with systematic planning and preparation of each area of this study.  In fact, organizational skill enhanced the time management skill of the researcher as the researcher was able to finish the various stages of this research study timely and effectively.

With this study, the researcher had analysed the relationship between employee’s level of motivation and their productivity at workplace by performing a case study on HSBC, UK. Therefore, two types of primary data- one through an interview and the other through a survey, which were essential for the successful completion of this study. By conducting data collection process, the researcher was capable of bettering communication skills immensely and that will help the researcher in establishing a bright future with the level of confidence that the researcher obtained while dealing with professionals. 

APPENDIX II

Interview questions for the managers of HSBC, UK.

1.    In your opinion, what is the importance of maintaining the level of motivation of employees and what is the objective of employee motivation in HSBC?

2.    What are the factors that you think that affected the performance of employees of your Bank?

3.    How has motivational programs influenced your Bank?

4.    Do you think that motivational programs stimulate the productivity of HSBC employees?

 

 

Survey questions for the employees of HSBC, UK.

Dear Employees,

This questionnaire has been prepared in the aim to analyze the relationship between employee’s level of motivation and their productivity at work place: a case study of HSBC, UK. The survey questionnaire given below intent to collect your valuable feedback and opinions regarding the employee motivation and employee productivity at HSBC, UK. For completing the survey you will have to spend 10 minutes. If you feel any problem with the survey questions you can withdraw from the participation at any time. The confidentiality of your responses will be maintained under the Data Protection Act, 1998.

Please mark ‘X’ in the appropriate columns presented under each questions as per your opinion.

1.    Age

·         Below 25 years

·         26-35 years

·         36-45 years

·         46-55 years

·         Above 56 years

2.    Gender

·         Male – 50%

·         Female  - 50%

3.    Work experience

·         Below 2 years

·         2-5 years

·         5-8 years

·         8-11 years

·         Above 11 years

4.    In your opinion, which of the following is the main advantage related with motivational programs of HSBC?

·         Enhanced job performance

·         Enhanced workforce productivity

·         Opportunity to attain desire and ambition

·         Eliminated de-motivating factors

·         Favourable working environment

5.    In your opinion, what are the major factors that adversely influenced the effectiveness of your performance in HSBC?

·         Manager’s attitude

·         Personal issues

·         Organizational culture of HSBC

·         Financial rewarding system

·         Content of work

6.    Please rate the following motivational programs on the basis of their level of influence on your loyalty and contentment in HSBC (1-appalling, 2-moderate, 3-good and 4- excellent)

Motivational programs

Appalling

Moderate

Good

Excellent

Reward scheme

 

 

 

 

Reasonable compensation

 

 

 

 

Admirable salary

 

 

 

 

Retirement’s welfares

 

 

 

 

‘My Choice’ benefit package

 

 

 

 

Other schemes such as staff discounts, bonuses, salary increment etc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.    How do you rate the efficiency of HSBC’s motivational programs in fostering productivity in the workplace?

·         Effective

·         Average

·         Not at all effective

8.    In your opinion, which of the following section requires most improvements in HSBC to emphasis on motivational programs to enhance employee productivity?

·         Manager’s attitude towards employees

·         Maintaining equilibrium in rewarding system

·         Prioritising employees on the basis of competence

·         Job security

·         Others

Thank you

I express my heartfelt gratitude to all the managers and employees who took part in the interview and survey analysis for helping me to collect relevant information’s for accomplishing the research study. I also extent my thankfulness to all the participants for spending your valuable time for achieving success in the research study. I also promise you that the data collected will be treated with high confidentiality without disclosing the identity of the participants in the research study.

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