Literature Review: Tips To Follow

29th June 2017

The aim of a literature review is to show your tutor that you have read, and have a good understanding of the published works in your subject area. The published works can be in any format, including online sources. The literature review has to provide a framework for your further work based on your research objective.

Your literature review should not simply be a summary of other published works, but a critical discussion showing your insight and awareness about the different arguments, theories and approaches. It should be an analysis and synthesis of the relevant published work, linked to your research objective and rationale.

The purpose of the review is:

• To define and limit the research problem.

• To have a historical perspective of your study

• To avoid duplication

• To analyse the various research methods

• To relate the findings of your research to previous knowledge and give suggestions

 A literature review should:

• Compare and contrast different authors' opinion on an issue

• Critically analyse the various aspects of the methodology

• Describe areas where there is a disagreement between the authors

• Highlight studies which are exemplary

• Highlight any gaps in research

• Show how your research relates to previous researches

• Show how your research relates to the literature in general

• Conclude by giving a summary of what the literature says

Therefore, a good literature review is a critical analysis of what has been written, identifies any gaps and areas which need further research and also raises questions.

 Structure of the literature review

The overall structure of your review will depend largely on your research area. You should group together and compare and contrast the varying opinions of different writers on certain topics in your literature review. You should not just describe what one writer says, and then write a general overview of another writer, and then another, and so on. Your structure should instead be dictated by topic areas and questions to which there are varying approaches and theories. Within each of these sections, you should then discuss what the different literature argues and link it to your research objective.

Linking words are very important when you write a literature review. If you are grouping together similar opinions, you can use words or phrases such as:

similarly, in addition, also, again

More importantly, if there is disagreement, you need to indicate that clearly show your awareness of this by the use of linkers such as:

however, on the other hand, conversely, nevertheless

At the end of the review, you should include a summary of what the literature implies, which again links to your main research question. A good literature review needs a clear line of argument. Make sure that your literature review has a clear, short introduction which gives an outline of the review. There should be a clear link between your arguments and the evidence uncovered in your reading. If appropriate you can use quotations. Also, you should acknowledge opinions which disagree with your thesis. This will make your argument stronger.

 

 The quality of your literature review depends on how well read you are. Before you start reading it will be useful to make a list of the main areas and questions involved, and then read to find out about or answering these. If you are not familiar with this style of writing our academic writing service can help you.

Your review must be written in an academic and formal style. And try to avoid plagiarising your sources. Always separate the opinions in your sources from your own hypothesis and make sure you reference the literature you are referring to consistently.

 

Tips For Writing A Postgraduate Dissertation

27th June 2017

 

Writing a masters dissertation is seen as a herculean task by many, one that should not be taken lightly.

Here we are looking at so many different aspects of dissertation writing to guide you in the process of running your race. And if you have been away from academia for a while our academic writing services might be helpful to you.

Structure of the dissertation

Writing a dissertation is a novel experience, and there is no general agreement on the best way to structure it should be. As a postgraduate student, you will have to decide the kind of structure that suits your research project best after consulting with your supervisor as well as by reading other dissertations of previous postgraduate students.

A standard way of structuring a postgraduate dissertation is to write it in the form of a book consisting of chapters. The number of chapters used depends on the topic chosen and the duration of the course. A dissertation organised into chapters would look like this:

1.    TITLE PAGE - The opening page including all the relevant information about the thesis.

2.    ABSTRACT - A brief project summary including background, methodology and findings.

3.    TABLE OF CONTENTS - A list of the chapters and figures contained in your thesis.

4.    CHAPTER 1 –INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND – An introduction and a description of the rationale behind your project.

5.    CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW - A summary of the literature supporting your project.

6.    CHAPTER 3 - METHODOLOGY - An explanation of the various methods used for conducting your research.

7.    CHAPTER 4 - DATA ANALYSIS and DISCUSSION - A description of the various techniques used in analysing your research data.

8.    CHAPTER 5 - CONCLUSION - Main conclusions based on the data analysis.

9.    REFERENCES - A list of the references cited in your thesis.

10.    APPENDICES - Additional materials used in your research.

When to start writing?

When you should start writing your dissertation depends on the scope of the research project and the course duration. However, regardless of the nature and scope of the research project, you should start writing your dissertation as early as possible, and there are some good reasons for this:

1.    Academic writing is not about talent; it is more about practice. It is an effortful task. Therefore, starting early would help you gear up in

2.    If you do not write things as they are still fresh in your mind, you will have to spend more time writing it later on.

3.    Starting early will help you sharpen your dissertation many times as your first draft is unlikely to be perfect. Also, you will get enough time to get feedback from your supervisor and revise your dissertation accordingly.

Improving your writing skills

The best way of improving your writing skills is to a lot of reading around. Reading academic articles and searching for information on the internet will help you to get used to the academic style of writing and eventually you should be able to do it effortlessly. Most universities have writing centres that offer courses and other kinds of support for postgraduate students. Attending these courses will help you improve your writing skills. Also, you can take help from our dissertation writing services and dissertation writing help.

Keeping track of the bibliography

The best way to keep track of all the articles you have read is to create a database where you can summarise each article/chapter into a few most important bullet points to help you remember their content. Make sure your referencing style is the same as suggested by your university

Plagiarism!!!

Plagiarism can cost you your postgraduate degree, and it is important that you avoid it. Plagiarism can happen when you copy/paste specific sections of a journal article you are citing instead of paraphrasing them. Whenever you are presenting something that is not your own idea mention the source and rephrase the sentences.

Dissertation Format

Different universities have different guidelines on how to format your thesis, and it is important that you read these guidelines before submitting your thesis to avoid being penalised.

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Points To Be Included In Undergraduate Dissertation

22nd June 2017

 

For writing a dissertation, planning is the first step. Until you have studied the literature around your topic of choice, you may not have a clear idea of the scope of your study; At this stage, your title may be a provisional one which you can revise once you have a clear picture of what your study is going to be. You can examine journals for examples of title for such a study. Also, work closely with your supervisor during the entire length of your study. Your supervisor’s guidance is invaluable in successfully completing your dissertation.

As a preliminary step, you may be required to write a proposal clearly describing what you plan to do in your dissertation. The word count of your proposal depends on your supervisor. The value of a proposal is that it that it helps you to focus and articulate your thinking. It is actually a summary of the exact nature and scope of your study. A  proposal often serves as a guide as you write the main chapters of your dissertation. Alternatively, it will also make you aware of the gaps in your knowledge and will show you the areas that need more consideration during your research. It is useful, therefore, to write the proposal and retain it for further reference. It is always advisable to have a draft structure of your dissertation as it will help you to have some order on what is perceived as an unimaginable task.

Once you have submitted the proposal and discussed it with your supervisor, you can start writing the first draft of a chapter of the dissertation. When you hand in this draft, you should arrange a meeting with your supervisor to get some comments and suggestions on how your work can be improved. It is better to revise your chapter by your supervisor’s comments immediately when your supervisor’s advice is fresh in our mind.

Depending on the credit rating of the dissertation, the amount of time you devote to it should be the same as you would to a taught course with the same credit rating.

Once the final year begins, your weeks will go by quickly. So organising your time is very important.

Once you have figured out plan it is much easier to plan the work in sequence and to set targets for yourself. Do not forget to allow yourself plenty of time for final revisions after your tutor has seen a complete draft.

Here are some that can be considered while writing the different sections of your dissertation.

Given below is a sample structure and the details that should be included under each heading. This general structure will give you an overall idea about the dissertation.

1.Introduction

The introduction to your dissertation what you are going to investigate should explain to the reader. It should explain the dissertation's topic and scope and your reasons for investigating the chosen topic.

2.Literature review                                                                            

One of the most important academic conventions is the literature review. In short, the literature review is a discussion or 'review' of secondary literature that is of general and of relevance to the area under investigation.

It demonstrates to your supervisor that you have read widely and is aware of the range of debates that have taken place within the given field.

 3. Methodology

Here you should demonstrate a good working knowledge of the methods employed. It should include a good coverage of the various methods used in the process and indicate how the analysis is done. You should also cover the ethical issues involved in your research.

4. Findings

The findings are usually presented in charts and tables. It is important to ensure that findings are truly analysed, rather than described. 

5. Discussion

In this section, you link the findings to the literature presented in the literature review.

6. Conclusion

 Here you have the opportunity to review your work as a whole, to identify the points of comparison and contrast the various texts you have examined, and to show that, in the process of your study, you have developed a more precise, critical understanding of the way they deal with your topic. You can also point out the limitations of your research in this section and possible avenues for researchers to address the issues in the future.

There are some basic rules to be followed such as:

1.    Type or word-process your dissertation - do not write it out.

2.    Use double line spacing.

3.    Use single line spacing for indented quotations (and footnote these!)

4.    Number the pages.

5.    Include a title page and a table of contents.

Remember to stick to any format stipulated by your department. If you are stuck at any point, you can get in touch with us. Along with customized dissertation writing services, we also provide dissertation help which will help you come out in flying colours

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Preparing For Open Book Exams

20th June 2017

 

For any student, an exam is a daunting prospect. You may feel a bit relaxed when you hear that it is an open book one. But the truth is just the opposite, just like you would prepare for any other exam, you need to study for open book exams too!!! Only if you know your subject thoroughly, you will have the knowledge base to apply to your questions.  You will also understand why and how the topics are linked. The difference is, rather than just memorising, open book exams require you to learn for understanding. The key thing to remember is that if you don’t study, you would not be able to answer your exam questions properly, be it a book or no book exam. An open book exam can be in the classroom or take home with questions unseen or seen before exam time.

 You should never underestimate the preparation needed for an open book exam. You should realise that your time is limited, so the key is proper organisation. Use tables of contents and index pages to locate relevant sections in your book. Bookmarking the sections will be useful. Also, prepare a flow chart to show how the topics are connected. In short, organise your materials so that you know where to find the answers to your questions and that you will not be going back and forth searching for answers during the exam.

For an open book exam, a large amount of materials might make you feel secure, but it will be better if could rely on no more than a few pages of notes. While preparing notes, work out the main theme, key concepts and make legible and brief notes. Also, use clear headings and organise notes by the topic. Familiarise yourself with your notes so that you can locate your answers easily without wasting time. Only take what you need, do not overload. Furthermore, find out about the materials you can take into the exam room, the time you have, the expected length of your answer, the type of questions asked whether it is an essay or short answers and whether you need references or not. Your tutor may provide you with some sample questions and do not forget to check out on some past exam papers in the Library.

If it is a take-home exam, collect notes, readings and resources well beforehand and neatly organise them in your study at home. Make sure you have enough paper pens etc. at home and set up a quiet area where you can concentrate, and work without any interruption. For a take home exam also you should find out the date and time, the place where you have to hand in the answers, the time you get, references, type of questions, etc.

When you prepare your notes, be it an open book or take home, do not waste time guessing possible questions and making model answers. Pre-prepared answers simply would not work. However, you should know the conceptual frameworks and should have some general conclusions in mind. If your exam is an online one, make yourself familiar with the program that you will be typing your answer in and make sure you have an average typing speed. If you don’t have typing speed work on it well before the exams!!!!

During the exam, the time is likely to be very less.  So, first answer the questions that you know without extensively referring to the materials. There may be sufficient time to quickly refer to materials and aim for concise, well-supported answers. If you have time to review at the end, you can check your materials more extensively and verify the accuracy of your answers, or you can find additional points. We wish you all success in your exams…

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Reflective Writing Tips To Remember

17th June 2017

Reflective writing is considered to be a logical practice in which a writer explains a real or imaginary action or event adding a personal reflection on the meaning of his/her thoughts or opinions. In reflective writing, you need to express your emotions and thoughts about certain actions. The researcher him/her self-develop and express his/her thoughts and opinions on a particular research topic selected.

Where you make up a story or explain something that you explain something that occurred and most of the writing will be a creative writing. Reflective writing contributes the writer visions and can guide to additional learning. It is like the wind back your life to a former event and then thinking about what you could have done inversely to change the result, how is affected your life, or what came out of the event. A mental process is a reflection. It is a long consideration or observation.  Opinions or judgements that come to you when you are reflecting are called reflections. Contrasting a reflection in a mirror, it in as the understanding of what is working on among thinking and learning.

Some of the factors that affect when you are writing about the reflection are the following

1.  Your feelings at the time of writing.

2.  Why are you writing?

3.  Whether others will read it.

Ø  How you feel about writing?

Ø  How proficient you are at writing reflectively?

Some of the guidelines for the reflective writing are the following.

1.  What was going on?

2.  What was good and bad?

3.  What did you sense and consider and what were your responses?

4.  What are you going to reflect and why are you revealing?

5.  What are the definite and overall deductions that you have made?

Some of the tips for reflective writing are the following

·         A reflective paper must discourse and opines about core aspects and factors of your reflection. Most applicable theoretical ideas should also sustain all these.

·         You will have to incorporate most authenticate pertinently, and evidence in your essay and these can be case studies and theories. All these must be committed to your real-life practice.

·         You will have to be selective and precise. In this concern, an essay must reflect understandings that work as per the allotted topic and don’t assimilate anything that is just out of topic.

·A good reflective essay can only be equipped by using the appropriate practice of language. Remember, your article must be written in “a first-person context” by using “I” concept.

·         You must take a stable approach to your writing. This can be done by avoiding by presenting the suggestion. Keep in your notice that you are writing a reflective piece of writing, so you should be precise to your real personal lifetime involvement.

By following these guidelines, you will be capable of creating a well-written reflective essay and making a strong impression on your article. You can always approach us if you are in need of any assignment help. Remember one thing to be kept in the notice that you are going to present reflective writing and thus you should assimilate all your exact real-life event and practices to create a thoughtful article.

 

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